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QE theme on research-teaching linkages:
Arts and Social Sciences disciplinary area

Best paper on research-teaching linkage: Although about STEM (science, technology, engineering, maths) subject areas, not Arts as the project below addresses, this paper is important because it demonstrates that having PhD students do teaching improved their research skills. They found an effect that was statistically significant (i.e. very unlikely to be a random fluctuation) AND with a large effect size (0.63).

Feldon, David F., Peugh, James, Timmerman, Briana E., Maher, Michelle A., Hurst, Melissa, Strickland, Denise, Gilmore, Joanna A., & Stiegelmeyer, Cindy, (2011) "Graduate Students' Teaching Experiences Improve Their Methodological Research Skills" Science vol.333 (no.6045) pp.1037-1039. DOI: 10.1126/science.1204109

Our main web pages (Short URL:
Our event! (now past)   Handouts:   1   2   3   4   draft report
Passport photo Passport photo
Vicky Gunn Steve Draper
The topic of research-teaching linkages arises both to suggest improvements to the quality of learning and teaching, and to address the question of why academics should be paid for research, when their obvious social function is teaching, by demonstrating and strengthening the relationship of teaching with research. There are several quite different kinds of R-T relationship to consider.

The QAA (Quality Assurance Agency) has a Scottish branch that operates quality enhancement themes (see also here). This page relates to the research-teaching linkages theme running Jan 07 - Feb 08. We have a 10k grant for the Arts and Social Science disciplinary area (1 of 9). (More stuff on the grant in part D.)

This page holds my own notes on this. Our main site is edited by Vicky. (If you want to print all those pages off, here is a one page compilation of the main pages to make that more convenient. Also here is one page compilation on my pages for printing.)

Broadly, we expect to contribute in 3 ways:

Contents overview

Detailed Contents (click to jump to a section)

B. Material for normal academics in arts and social science

My favourite action points

Here's my current favourite things to consider acting on if you wanted to improve your department's position on RT links.

Our material

Material related to our work, starting with conceptual ideas and the literature review, will appear here.

Case studies

This is ONLY a draft of the format: real content to come.

Here is a master table of case studies. Red for ours; green for ones from Healey & Jenkins.

Research as Content Research as Process Research as Professional practice Teaching to transform research Practice as research
English related studies Literary Studies

Case studies from Healey & Jenkins

Here are some case studies relevant to RT linkages in the discipline areas we cover (Arts and Social sciences). They are copied from: Healey,M. & Jenkins,A. (2007) "Case studies of linking discipline-based research and teaching in disciplines, departments, institutions and national systems" PDF file (Visited 12 March 2007). This is an early version of:
Jenkins A, Healey M & Zetter R (2007) Linking teaching and research in disciplines and departments (York: The Higher Education Academy) PDF


Students in pre-service teacher education for university lecturers at Otago, New Zealand, undertake "authentic enquiry" using portfolios

Students used portfolios to provide space for "authentic enquiry" that focused on student self-determination and the process, rather than the outcomes, of learning. The rationale behind the portfolio involved reflections on practice as the curriculum developed during the research cycle. Initially, portfolios were evaluated formatively during supervisory meetings and each student decided what part of their portfolio should remain private and what the tutor might read and comment on. In the second phase of development, formative judgements about work were no longer made and portfolios became private documents. Challenges for student teachers were associated with the novelty of the experience, the time taken for reflection to develop and the individualistic nature of the task. This presents challenges for the supervisor centred on new methods of supervision and trying to live up to the explicit values that informed the curriculum.

Harland, T (2005) Developing a portfolio to promote authentic enquiry in teacher education Teaching in Higher Education 10 (3) pp.327-337

English related studies

The MA in Shakespeare Studies: Text and Playhouse run jointly by the English Department at King's College, University of London and the Globe Theatre, UK

The aim of this initiative is to indicate the integral nature of the links between research and teaching through this very practical example. The Text and Playhouse MA concentrates on Shakespeare’s dramatic texts, and the manner of their performance in the Globe theatre. This MA is heavily informed by two forms of scholarly research, textual studies and performance practice. The students are encouraged to conduct their own primary research using the resources of the Globe theatre. Similarly the lecturers at Kings, who are involved in this programme, have taken the opportunity to test their own textual theories on the Globe stage. Both Professor Ann Thompson and Dr. Gordon McMullan, who run the course for King's, have used elements of the performance aspects of the course in editing editions of the New Arden Shakespeare. This programme is not unique in its partnership with a theatre company, but is distinctive in that the theatre company has employed a full-time academic (Dr Gabriel Egan) partly to run the course.

Literary Studies

Introducing enquiry-based teaching methods in literary studies at Manchester University, UK

The traditional form of Literary Studies teaching in HE is tutor-centred. In this case study a group of second year students studying Eighteenth Century Literature are introduced to enquiry-based learning in the first week of the first semester. The course consists of a weekly lecture and a weekly seminar. The latter consists of 15 students who are divided into three groups of five sitting round a small round table. During the seminars the tutor acts as a task-giver and thereafter as both an information resource, responding to student requests and as a facilitator moving from sub-group to sub-group helping discussion to develop where needed. For example, in week 1 the students were given a poem by Samuel Johnson, ‘On the death of Dr Robert Levet’. The poem was issued to students without annotations or supporting detailed biographical information. Each sub-group were asked to address two questions: "What kind of language does the poem use?" and "What belief system, if any, does the poem imply?". Most groups responded to this task actively by exploring and considering the possibilities from a range of perspectives, establishing and pooling any existing knowledge base and assessing its applicability to the task in hand. By emphasising the need to seek other sources to contextualise their answers the facilitator began to establish the research element crucial to moving from "problem solving" to something more active.

Hutchings, W. and O'Rourke, K. (2003) "Introducing enquiry-based teaching methods in literary studies" in Critical Encounters: Scholarly Approaches to Learning & Teaching Continuing Professional Development Series 6. York: Higher Education Academy. Available at:


Geography students at University College London, UK, interview staff about their research All year one students do an assignment in term one, in which students interview a member of staff about their research.

This curriculum was adapted from one developed for a third year synoptic course on the philosophy of geography at the then Oxford Polytechnic, which at the time received little funding for research:

The aim in this teaching-focused department was to develop students' understanding of recent research developments in the discipline.

Cosgrove D (2001) Teaching geographical thought through student interviews, Journal of Geography in Higher Education 5(1) pp.19-22

Dwyer, C (2001) Linking research and teaching: a staff-student interview project, Journal of Geography in Higher Education 25 (3) pp.357-366


Department strategy to induct students into a research intensive department: Geography at University College London, UK

UCL Geography Department has long operated a department wide strategy to induct students into studying in a top research department. In brief all first year undergraduate students interview staff about their research. As a department strategy this:

  1. inducts students in term one, year one, into the type of department in which they will be studying and starts to help them identify the potential benefits to them of such a department;
  2. It also helps "manage" the expectations of students, most of whom recently graduated from high school where staff had the one central responsibility of teaching. These students are in effect learning that staff have other responsibilities as well as teaching undergraduates.
  3. In addition by involving all academic staff in this exercise - and where students interview them about their views of teaching-research relations - this exercise serves to raise department discussions and awareness about the issues in linking teaching and research.

Dwyer, C (2001) Linking research and teaching: a staff-student interview project, Journal of Geography in Higher Education 25 (3) pp.357-366


Constructing a Research-led History Final Year Seminar Programme at Sheffield University, UK

At Sheffield University, Brian Vick takes a final year history seminar entitled: "Revolution, Romanticism and Napoleon: Politics and Culture in Europe, 1790-1820", in which the students practice the skills of undertaking historical research. The seminar generally has between 8-12 students and entails two 2-hour sessions per week for the entire year. Most students do their dissertations on at least vaguely related topics.

The course traces key aspects of European culture and political culture from the French Revolution to the Congress of Vienna and even beyond, into the early years of the post- Napoleonic Restoration and is linked to the tutor’s current research exploring the Vienna Congress of 1814-1815 as an event in intellectual, cultural and political history. The students practice interpreting sources and answering open-ended questions deriving from debates among historians. They learn to look at a range of sources, including archival documents, political tracts and speeches, philosophical texts, a novel, a play, poetry, music, painting, architecture—even an opera. And they do so from a range of historical perspectives relating to the study of political culture. They are then able to put these skills and themes to use in their own research.

Vick, B (2006) Constructing a Research-led Seminar Programme at Level 3


History students contribute research findings to a Web site at Victoria University, Canada

In 2002, John Lutz implemented History 481: Micro History and the Internet, a learner-centred and research-oriented course in which the main activity was primary archival research on various aspects of life in Victoria, British Columbia from 1843 to 1900. Students worked in small groups to conduct the research and eventually to publish their findings on the website called "Victoria's Victoria". John reports that "The feedback I get often says, that if they remember only one course from university, this (course) will be it ... some alumni contact me to say that the web skills have landed them a job." John notes that the grades in Micro History 481 were approximately 8% higher that the grades that these same students received in other senior history courses that they take from him.

Anon (2003) "Micro History 481: Forging the research-teaching connection" Comments 1(2) pp.6-7


Students taking a historical methodology course engage in original oral history research at Indiana State University, US

The 30 or so students taking the introductory historical methodology course are engaged in original research. Anne L. Foster, an assistant professor of history, who teaches the course, was eager to find topics in which her students could "become experts" and make a real contribution to local knowledge.

In 2004, the class produced a history of the black community of the Wabash Valley, including Lost Creek, a neighbourhood of Terre Haute, Indiana, the city that is home to the university. Lost Creek was established in the 1820s by freed and runaway slaves with the help of local Quakers. The course stresses oral histories, and that year's project included a video interview with a 104-year-old woman whose grandparents were slaves. Another group of students, in the fall of 2005, interviewed three elderly local men with connections to the Holocaust: a concentration-camp survivor from Latvia, a Jew whose family managed to flee Germany, and a former U.S. soldier who helped liberate a concentration camp in Germany. One student did an independent project that turned the class material into a permanent exhibit at Terre Haute's Holocaust museum.

Students would have interviewed more people, but changes in the university's rules on human research subjects made it difficult. Ms. Foster says she expects the university's research board to relax the new rules to facilitate the taking of oral histories.

Bollag, B (2006) History Undergrads Perform Original Research in Course at Indiana State U. The Chronicle of Higher Education 15 December


Arts of Citizenship Program at the University of Michigan, US

In this program students combine learning and research with practical projects that enhance community life. Each year Arts of Citizenship directly sponsor eight to twelve projects, and award grants for another eight to twelve projects. Projects in the arts, the humanities, and design are wide-ranging and include:



First Year Ways of Knowing: University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada

This course is an introduction to the nature of academic practice/research in the Arts and Social Sciences. In addition to lectures, workshops focus on students developing skills in research, critical thinking, and teamwork. Each year a particular theme is identified - generally one that reflects a Windsor community issue - and student teams investigate and present in public the results of their inquiries. Senior students and community members act as mentors to these investigations. There are discussions on extending this "model" to other disciplinary groups.

Source: see webcast at:


Learning to think like a philosopher: developing students' research skills in a history of philosophy course, University of Leeds, UK

One aim of most degree courses, at least if they are in a single discipline, is to help students think like, for example, historians, chemists, or planners. Traditionally in philosophy this is attempted by 'sitting at the feet' of experienced philosophers and ploughing through long reading lists. Research into philosophy is seen as something largely reserved for postgraduate study. At the University of Leeds, George MacDonald Ross has developed a more active approach in a final year module, which engages his students directly with a philosophical text - Kant's Critique of Pure Reason - and helps them develop key research skills.

He teaches the course by running interactive seminars, rather than lectures, at which students are forbidden to take notes, except for a secretary, who posts minutes on a website within 24 hours. This has the advantage that students focus more on discussion during seminars, and that they treat the minutes as secondary literature, rather than their own intellectual property to be used without acknowledgment. Most of the time is spent discussing the interpretation of key passages projected on a screen. However, most of the students' learning time is taken up by reading the text in conjunction with George's running commentary; preparing short answers to interpretative questions, some of which will form the basis of the following seminar; and writing essays. Researching and writing essays is a small-scale version of what historians of philosophy do as researchers, and it is central to the module. Apart from one final essay, students write three two-page essays during the year. They are given the assessment criteria (presentation, referencing, accuracy, clarity, argumentation, independence, other strengths and weaknesses) before hand and have to self-assess their attempt against them. He does not put the mark on the essay, instead he tells them to guess the mark in the light of his comments, and sign up for a 15-minute individual tutorial at which he reveals the mark, and advises them on how to improve their performance next time.

George has also attempted, though so far with only limited success, to establish "buddy groups" to mimic the informal networking found in research communities. This means trying to shift a culture of competition in assessment to one of co-operation in research. He has also been given a grant by his university to devise multiple-choice questions (MCQs) which will develop the ability of students to consider reasons for and against different possible interpretations of key texts, and for and against the validity of the ideas and arguments as so interpreted. They won’t be told whether they are right or wrong, but they will be forced to think argumentatively about the text they are reading; and the change in activity from mere reading and note-taking to active engagement with an MCQ should improve their motivation. More importantly, the sort of thinking they will be engaged in will be precisely the sort of thinking that is characteristic of the mature historian of philosophy.

Source: Based on a draft case study by George MacDonald Ross 2006. The final version will be available on The Higher Education Academy's Subject Centre for Philosophical and Religious Studies


Psychology Students Research Students' Quality of Life at York St John University, UK

First year, non-specialist, psychology students undertake an eight-week project involving students collecting data from themselves and three other students using four short inventories and a biographical questionnaire in order to research topics related to students' Quality of Life. This project provided students with the opportunity to collect "live" data, contribute to a developing database, select data for analysis, and write up findings. The topics available for selection by students were linked to the research interests of the lecturer, Dr. Jacqui Akhurst, making the project mutually beneficial. A departmental technician provided assistance with questionnaire design, the development and maintenance of a database, data entry, and tutoring on some portions of the project.



A Department Undergraduate Research Scheme: Psychology at York, UK

Department initiatives to formally support undergraduates doing research – in close involvement with staff research – are a feature of many US departments (Kinkead, 2003). A growing number of UK departments are now developing their own undergraduate research programmes (Jenkins, 2006). That in the psychology department at York University was initiated in 2005 and replaced and developed previous informal arrangements. The scheme enables students who wish to gain research experience to volunteer to assist with current department staff projects. Any 1st or 2nd year student can take part in the scheme though preference is normally given to second year students. Third year students are typically busy with their own projects and tend not to participate. Staff enter details of their projects on PsychWeb together with an outline of the research questions, what research assistance is needed and the rate of pay. Generally the payments to students come from research grants.

Source: Goebel and Gennari (2006);

Social science

Inquiry-based learning introductory course for social sciences had a significant impact on students' subsequent performance at McMaster University, Canada

McMaster University has been running a first year course for social sciences based on inquiry (Inquiry 1SS3) since the late 1990s. This case study discusses this award-winning course as it evolved over the first five years (see Justice et al. 2002; in press a), since then other instructors have taken on the course and is taught to reflect their interests. It was typically taught in sections of no more than twenty-five students assigned to an instructor. All of the sections had the same curriculum, reading material, process of assessment, and goals that were outlined in a detailed compendium. The classes met for twelve three-hour concurrent sessions. Class time consisted of a combination of exercises and tasks for building the students’ critical abilities and time for students to share ideas about their individual inquiries with other students. Much of class time involved groups of four or five students assisting each other in such things as clarifying understandings or planning research strategies.

All students investigated aspects of a broad social science theme, such as "self identity" and addressed a common inquiry question, such as: "Why do images of ethnicity, race, gender, sexuality, age, class, or abilities help to create aspects of personal and community identity?". Students had to propose their own inquiry question, such as: "Why do some children apparently become violent after watching violent cartoons while others seem to be unaffected?" They had to justify why the question was important in relation to existing literature. They then investigated the question through a process which involved developing and testing hypotheses using secondary sources. The course emphasized the development of skills, including critical reading and thinking, independent and collaborative learning, information searching and evaluation, analysis and synthesis, oral and written communication, and self and peer evaluation.

Analysis of five years of data (Justice et al. in press b), comparing students who took the Inquiry course with comparable students who did not, shows that it has had a significant impact on how well students perform during their academic careers. The findings allow for initial differences between the two samples. Taking the Inquiry course is associated with statistically significant positive differences in obtaining passing grades, achieving Honours, staying on the Dean’s honour list, and remaining in university.

Current research is investigating in what way(s) Inquiry 1SS3 students changed that might explain their long-term enhanced performance at university. A quasi-experimental study (Justice et al., 2005) compares a randomly selected group of 54 students who took Inquiry 1SS3 in their first semester with 71 comparable students who did not. The research goes beyond self-reports of learning and directly measures abilities and performance. Though not yet published, it seems taking Inquiry 1SS3 is associated with meaningfully higher scores in actual performance tests of many intellectual and academic skills and that often the magnitude and significance of the difference between groups is comparable to that between upper- and lower-level students (~2 years of university).

  • Justice, C, Warry, W, Cuneo, C, Inglis, S, Miller, S, Rice, J, and Sammon, S (2002) "A grammar for inquiry: linking goals and methods in a collaboratively taught social sciences inquiry course" The Alan Blizzard Award Paper: The Award Winning Papers, Special Publication of the Society for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education and McGraw-Hill Ryerson, Windsor
  • Justice, C, Rice, J, Warry, W, and Laurie, I (2005) "Why Inquiry makes a difference: evaluative research on learning outcomes and teaching practice" Paper delivered at 2nd Annual Conference of the International Society for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (ISSOTL), Vancouver
  • Justice, C, Rice, J, Warry, W, Inglis, S, Miller, S and Sammon S (in press) "Inquiry in higher education: reflections and directions on course design and teaching methods" Innovative Higher Education
  • Justice, C, Rice, J, Warry, W and Laurie, I (in press) "Taking inquiry makes a difference - a comparative analysis of student learning" Journal of Excellence in College Teaching


    A guide for Undergraduate dissertations in Sociology, Anthropology, Politics, Social Policy, Social Work and Criminology, Sheffield Hallam, UK

    This web-resource was prepared to provide support and guidance for students writing dissertations in the social sciences, but it offers useful guidance for any students carrying out research. It deals with some of the common questions, concerns and practical issues that undergraduate students face when planning a piece of social research – such as research design, ethics, access, and writing styles. The resource also provides some useful information for academic staff who are supervising undergraduate dissertations. It provides case studies of dissertation supervision issues and examples of the students' experiences of completing a project and it is hoped that this 'student voice' will be especially valuable for the 'new' supervisor.

    The content for the site was written by academic and support staff who have a particular interest in this area and have a great deal of experience in supervising undergraduate dissertations in the fields of sociology, anthropology, politics, criminology, social policy and social work. They have not produced this resource with the aim of providing a set of definitive answers; instead they recognise that there are many ways in which the "journey" through the process can be completed. The notes included here draw on the experiences of dissertation supervisors, academic research into the student and staff experiences of study and supervision, and examples of good practice.



    Using undergraduates to evaluate student experiences of teaching and learning in Sociology, University of Warwick, UK. In this project, second and third year Sociology students led an evaluation of their peer's experiences of teaching and learning. Students were asked to design a short research proposal, and the winning applications -- judged according to criteria of both feasibility and innovation -- were given a bursary by staff to put the proposals into practice. Five undergraduate students were chosen to lead the project, and they used a variety of social research methods -- including focus groups, interviews and participant observation -- to explore the learning experiences of their peers. The results were widely discussed within the department, and at a department away-day, and have led to students being more involved in academic debates.

    In a second stage of the project, a number of staff designed new course modules which sought to create a "pedagogic space" that transferred some of the responsibilities for content and learning outcomes to the students. The student researchers interviewed the staff about their experiences of running the modules. The courses aimed to give students more control over the forms and outcomes of their learning. However, this ideal was sometimes limited by the time and commitment of students willing to contribute to the blogs and web-spaces envisaged as part of this more decentred process of learning.

    There is no doubt that the organization of this project brought direct benefits to project team members. Students working on the project as student researchers have greatly enhanced their research, political, inter-personal and communication skills. Staff members have developed greater expertise in working with students as co-producers of knowledge. In this regard, the aim of integrating responsibilities for teaching and research is evidenced in the conduct of the project itself.

    Clearly it is more transferable to those departments and disciplines such as sociology, education, psychology, management, where students developing research skills "match" the research focus.

    Project led by Dr Christina Hughes.
    Hughes C (2005) "Linking Teaching and Research in a Research-Oriented Department of Sociology"

    C. Material about the educational concepts

    A number of phrases are now bandied about, representing nodules of ideas about enhancing HE. They overlap with each other and with research-teaching linkages. Some have been Scottish quality enhancement themes (QETs); some have been worked on in English (HEFCE) initiatives; some have been themes in the literature (and some have been both). They don't necessarily have one clear and agreed meaning: they are clusters and not independent, maximally reduced axioms. The following sections sketch some of them.

    PDP: personal development planning/portfolios

    Both these concepts are developed a little further on a separate page.

    PDP as personal development planning could be seen as essentially about a person's (a student's) overall view of themselves, their life plans, and their development. In that case, employability is only one aspect of that (the work part of life); and graduate attributes only one part of employability (even if the part that a university should have most to contribute to).

    PDP as personal development planning portfolios has a number of different ideas are heaped together here:

    Student generated PDP

    Nick Bowskill has a project where sessions are held (at the start of a year) in which student concerns about the course or programme as a whole are elicited, shared, discussed; and possible solutions too are discussed suggested by student mentors who have completed the course. This relates to the issue of transition, but can be seen as addressing the aspects of PDP to do with self-management and the skills of being a student, but doing so not by experts lecturing, but rather by eliciting student concerns, and student experience.

    Nick Bowskill's project


    (Has been a QET.)

    The tacit question behind this is: what use is an HE degree? In fact there is a huge range of possible kinds of thing:

    However some basic contextual points to bear in mind on this topic or "employability" are:

    Work related learning

    "Work related learning": same things? Same issue as employability, but phrased as a requirement to make the learning in HE relate to it? A phrase used of initiatives in English schools. "

    What are "graduate attributes"?

    The tacit question behind this is again: what use is an HE degree? The type of answer implied by the phrase is to list skills a graduate has that makes them more employable. These are the things referred to as "graduate attributes", and linked to this QE theme when it was scoped.

    As noted, they tend to make all disciplines sound the same, yet the chief defining attribute of a graduate is that they have been educated in one particular discipline, and NOT in all; and their habits of thought are markedly different because of this. Thus the literal and current "educational", i.e. edujargon, meanings of the phrase "graduate attributes" are to some extent in contradiction.

    I have a critique of the notion of graduate attributes (updated 5 Nov 2009).
    One (only one) concrete action related to the idea, and referred to in the critique, is this document The value of a degree from my department.

    As mentioned, the QEtheme of research teaching linkages was scoped to relate to this particular list of Graduate attributes (GAS). Whether that makes sense to practitioners and disciplines is not known.

    There is now a well regarded test for students of graduate attributes. A key reference about it is:
    Klein,S., Benjamin,R., Shavelson,R. & Bolus,R. (2007) "The Collegiate Learning Assessment: Facts and fantasies" Educational Review vol.31 no.5 pp.415-439
    The website is:

    Super-graduate attributes

    David Nicol has argued that "evaluative judgement" (or critical thinking) underpins essentially all the general qualities an HE graduate should have which have been identified as graduate attributes. In other words, all graduate attributes really reduce to the super-attribute of evaluative judgement.
    Nicol,D.J. (2010) The foundation for Graduate Attributes: developing self-regulation through self and peer assessment (Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education). This view is basically that we commonly have to make and communicate judgements of the value of products (writings) by oneself or others. I.e. that making judgements, rather than constructing arguments, is a crucial skill in work and, arguably, in degree programmes. This is a skill distinct from that focussed on by Kuhn.

    Another candidate for a super-attribute might be freedom from egocentricity. Piaget described how young children cannot appreciate that their visual viewpoint on the world is not shared by others, but before long they realise that what they can expect another to know depends upon what that person can see. This then develops into a "theory of mind": keeping track of what different people know. That is a first major development beyond egocentrism.

    At another level, a second major development is that generally graduates will be fairly good at evaluating actions and things in terms of expecting others to want the same things as they do (treat others as you would like to be treated). This however is elementary: it is much better than not thinking they have any needs or feelings, but it is markedly imperfect as a tool for anticipating others' motives. A third development requires grasping that different people really do want different things, and that oneself is not an adequate yardstick for human value in general. This is important for many professions (especially retail, design, diplomacy, ...). Cardinal Newman regarded peer interaction as the most valuable thing about a university education for this reason: realising that ones' own views often just aren't shared by others. Learning to deal with this is fundamental to HE. It is the foundation for critical thinking. So advanced progress beyond simple egocentricity could be seen as the foundation for critical thinking (and so for all graduate attributes, if we agree with Nicol), and furthermore has other direct benefits in later life, allowing you to deal constructively with people who are just not like you in knowledge, belief, and values.

    Deep internationalisation

    Shallow internationalisation might just be about sending marketing people on trips abroad to try to catch applicants; advertising; making a gesture about language support for writing academic English; eliminating grossly offensive jokes about other cultures.

    Deep internationalisation requires the consideration of abandoning the assumption that UK experts tell foreign students without any idea that they might learn from them or that the application of their knowledge will be importantly different in the context of different cultures. Perhaps in any subject, but certainly in subjects like education and healthcare, local circumstances make great differences in the effectiveness of interventions that are established in the UK. For instance where refrigeration is not ubiquitous the efficacy of most vaccines is undermined because they cannot be effectively distributed.

    Some of the different possible aspects of deep internationalisation:

    What are "research-teaching linkages"?

    (Obviously, this is a QET (the one we are working for).)

    The tacit question behind this topic is: why academics should be paid for research, when their obvious social function is teaching. The strategy for answering implied by the topic is to articulate and strengthen the various possible links between research and teaching.

    This is not simple because the word "research" means, for good reasons relevant to our purpose here, different things to different people. In ordinary English, "research" most often refers to what a journalist or assistant might do: retrieve information and knowledge that they and their employer did not already know, but which was already known to others; while to a scientist it means discovering something that has never been reported by anyone before. Both these senses are important in HE: e.g. corresponding to Enquiry Based Learning and to training in research. It is conventional for academics to distinguish the parts of their job into teaching, research, and administration. However a large part of "research" work is actually communicating knowledge (publishing papers, giving talks) which is essentially the same task requiring the same skills and practices as teaching does. "Research" means quite different things in Arts disciplines than in Sciences. And when we think of whom we would most trust as a teacher, then in applied subjects such as Medicine, Fine art, or taking a driving test we want someone with current practical experience far more than someone who is publishing in research journals: it is being a current practitioner of the subject rather than being a researcher that is desirable.

    To this general diversity of relevant meanings we must add the great contrasts in research modes and methods even within the meaning of research as creating knowledge hitherto unknown to anyone. This leads to not one, but a set, of different types of research-teaching relationship or linkage.

    Research-teaching linkages are related to a number of other themes:

    Enquiry based learning

    There is a significant literature on this (see here for a few basic pointers).

    The basic idea is to equate "enquiry" with "research" in the everyday non-academic sense of finding out what is known by others and/or published on the topic. It is, most basically, the idea that students should start with a question and find the answers themselves: "Answers first, then questions" is one slogan. EBL contrasts itself with ordinary expository teaching like lectures which tells students what is known without them having any question, any pre-existing use for the knowledge. Set the students a goal or specification for what is to be found out, then require them to go get it.

    Does doing research improve the quality of teaching?

    The short answer is "no" (if "improving" is assumed to mean improving currently tested learning outcomes). Although there are traces of a positive result.

    A guide to the evidence:
    A.Jenkins (2004) A guide to the research evidence on teaching-research relations (HEA)

    Davis, W K; Nairn, R; Paine, M E; Anderson, R M; Oh, M S (1992) "Effects of expert and non-expert facilitators on the small-group process and on student performance" Academic Medicine vol.67 no.7 pp.470-4 These did find a significant effect. The judgement of subject expertise was binary, made by the course director w.r.t. the particular case the group was studying; consisting of either research or training relevant to the topic.

    Schmidt, H. G., Van tier Arend, A., Moust, J.H.C. Kokx I. & Boon, L. (1993) "Influence of tutors' subject-matter expertise on student effort and achievement in problem-based learning" Academic Medicine vol.68 no.10 pp.784-791 They argue that there is an important positive effect of subject matter expertise in a PBL facilitator (tutor) on students' learning outcomes; strongest in first year; but that this is not usually being research active, but having some learning and training themselves in the subject of the course.

    Hattie, J. & Marsh, H.W. (1996) "The relationship between research and teaching: a meta-analysis" Review of Educational Research vol.66 no.4 pp.507-542 found essentially zero correlation between learners' learning outcomes and teacher's research output.

    Marsh, H.W. & Hattie J. (2002) "The relation between research productivity and teaching effectiveness" Journal of Higher Education vol.73 no.5 pp.603-641.

    Hattie, J. & Marsh, H.W. (2004) "One journey to unravel the relationship between research and teaching" Research and teaching: Closing the divide? An International Colloquium, Winchester, March 18-19, (accessed 15 February 2004).

    The fallacy

    However when you think about it, this approach is almost certainly the victim of sloppy common speech that equates an academic teaching with an academic "delivering" a course: and why should being a researcher make you better at delivery? What has not been studied or measured is a) who makes better curriculum designs? These are not measured by comparing student grades. And in some cases, they are fixed by external bodies and beyond the control of the teachers. b) Who makes better learning activity designs? These are often fixed by tradition, but when they are changed they can make big improvements to learning outcomes. However they are usually published as if the course design were the "cause", and not the teacher who created the design and got it adopted.

    First year experience

    (Has been a QET.) This topic has also had a big impact in most universities in the USA over the last 10 years. I have a few notes on this.

    A number of points warrant paying special attention to the nature and quality of the first year experience a student receives.

    Ad hoc set of links

    D. About this grant

    RT linkages theme: disciplinary areas and contacts

    (See also here.)

    Uneven disciplinary coverage

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